TABLE 2 Trends in School Enrollment Rates, Asian Countries, 1955-1964 (percent) Total Enrollments: Enrollment Rate3 1955b 1960 1964 Average Annual Rate of Increase 1955-64 First level 46 53 61 6.7 Second level 9 12 15 9.4 Third level 1.6 2.3 3.0 10.1 Total 27 31 36 6.9 Enrollment rate (ER) is enrollment as a percentage of corresponding age group (6 to 12, 13 to 17, and 18 to 21 for first, second, and third levels respectively). bSince the distribution of the population by single years of age and the distribution of enrollment by grades were not available for that year, the 1955 figures were estimated. Source: UNESCO (5, Table 11). Figure 1 gives a very rough indication of the extent to which universal education has been attained in the age groups from which primary and secondary students are drawn, African countries are the furthest from providing education for all children. Asian countries range all the way from very underdeveloped educationally (particularly those countries in the region from the Red Sea to the Himalayas) to advanced; a number of Asian countries now provide universal primary education. Latin America is notably further ahead but still lags behind Europe and northern America.* In terms of the measure used in Figure 1—the percentage ratio of enrollments in primary and secondary schools to the estimated school-age population—Pakistan and Nigeria are the least advanced of the world's twenty largest nations. *Harbison and Myers in (6, pp. 31-34) rank countries around 1960 according to a "composite index" based on enrollment rates at the secondary and higher levels of education. As shown in the following table, the distribution of countries across the range of their index according to continent is roughly comparable to that in Figure 1, although their table highlights more clearly the differences between Latin America and the developed countries, both because of the earlier data and because they give no place to primary school enrollment rates, in terms of which differences between developed and developing countries are less pronounced. Harbison and Myers' Composite Index, around 1960 0-10 10-30 30-50 50-80 80+ (Number of Countries) Africa 14 3 2 - - Asia 283 22 Latin America 185 21 Northern America and Europe - - 3 8 9t the same and possibly has increased slightly.